The Biblical Unitarian Podcast
183: Paul’s Use of OT Yahweh Texts for Jesus - Part 2

183: Paul’s Use of OT Yahweh Texts for Jesus - Part 2

July 29, 2021

This week's episode continues to explore the ways in which Paul cites OT Yahweh passages for Christ (and for God). We note that Paul is flexible with some of his quotations, demonstrating that the original referent in the OT citation can come to have a new referent in Paul's letters. We also explore a passage that David Capes, a leading scholar in the field of early high Christology, argues is a OT Yahweh passage used for Jesus. Lastly, we consider how Paul justifies citing Isaiah 45:23 for God in Romans and for Jesus in Philippians.

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182: Paul’s Use of OT Yahweh Texts for Jesus - Part 1

182: Paul’s Use of OT Yahweh Texts for Jesus - Part 1

July 22, 2021

In this episode, we begin exploring how the Apostle Paul used OT YHWH texts for both God and for Jesus. We note how Philippians 2 indicates that God has shared the divine name with the risen and exalted Jesus. We also see another passage referring to Jesus' lordship that indicates that he possesses the shared divine name, which Paul indicates with a YHWH citation from the Old Testament. Lastly, we look at the arguments and conclusions of a prominent scholar who sees Paul's use of YHWH texts for Jesus as evidence of early high Christology.

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https://docs.google.com/document/d/1pqYOUdOOAv8nIcmISQoVgAyyAPJ1zwHVZWwwLyRRk-o/edit?usp=sharing     

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181: OT Yahweh Texts for Jesus - An Introduction

181: OT Yahweh Texts for Jesus - An Introduction

July 15, 2021

The New Testament authors felt comfortable using Yahweh texts from the Hebrew Bible for the human Jesus. Some scholars have concluded that this data indicates that the NT authors identified Jesus as Yahweh, but this is problematic for many reasons. This episode will introduce the concept of OT Yahweh passages used in the NT for Jesus, looking at some examples as well as some helpful parallels in second temple Judaism. We conclude by using Mark 1:3--which cites Isaiah 40:3 for Jesus--as a test case suggesting that Jesus is the authorized and empowered agent of Yahweh.

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https://docs.google.com/document/d/1s7Mm0AKD9dTkqSGu3wrmmnCkpqIcvNyopGSl_io69eg/edit?usp=sharing    

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180: Making Sense of Titus 2:13

180: Making Sense of Titus 2:13

July 8, 2021

This episode closely studies Titus 2:13--a passage that is often used to suggest Jesus Christ is called "God." Titus 2:13 is a well-known ambiguous passage when it comes to the Greek, and it is certainly possible that Jesus is distinguished from the great God (i.e., the Father). This episode will look at both interpretations, examine the strengths of their arguments, and offer a nuanced reading that takes into account the overlooked reference to God's glory. 

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179: The Logos and Targum Neofiti

179: The Logos and Targum Neofiti

July 1, 2021

In this episode, we explore how the concept of God's "word" (Aramaic: "memra") is used in Targum Neofiti. After surveying the four ways in which this Aramaic Targum interprets the activity of the God of Israel in light of his word/memra, we turn to the prologue of John's Gospel (John 1:1-18) in order to see how the context created by Neofiti's use of word/memra helps us better understand God and his Logos. 

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178: The Logos and Targum Onkelos

178: The Logos and Targum Onkelos

June 24, 2021

This episode explores how the "Word of God" (Aramaic: "memra") was used to explain the activity of the God of Israel in the Jewish Targum Onkelos. After organizing the various ways that Onkelos understands and uses the "memra" of God in the Torah, we look at John 1:1-18 to see if our reading of that passage is illuminated by the Jewish context created by Targum Onkelos. We conclude that the memra of God in Targum Onkelos is not a preexisting, conscious person alongside the God of Israel.

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177: Sacrifices and the Christian God (Part 2 of 2)

177: Sacrifices and the Christian God (Part 2 of 2)

June 17, 2021

In this episode, we continue exploring how early Christians understood Jesus functioning within sacrificial terminology that was reserved for God alone. The Book of Hebrews has a lot to say about Jesus as a high priest and as one who sacrificially offered himself to the one God. We also look at Paul's theology of the death of Jesus to see how the cross is understood in terms of a sin offering. Lastly, we explore the Lord's Supper--the Eucharist--to better understand how this meal was practiced in terms of remembering and even participating in Jesus' sacrifice to God.

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176: Sacrifices and the Christian God (Part 1)

176: Sacrifices and the Christian God (Part 1)

June 10, 2021

In this episode, we explore the function of sacrifices in the Ancient Near East, particularly in the ways they were differentiated from acts of worship and bowing down. Since the gods were understood to be the intended object of the offering of sacrifices and burnt offerings, we are able to examine early Christian "sacrificial" language to see whom they regarded as the true object. We note in our survey that God alone is the object of Christian "sacrifice" language, never Jesus Christ, while Jesus is sometimes the agent through whom sacrifices are made to the one God.

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175: Was Jesus a Monotheist?

175: Was Jesus a Monotheist?

June 3, 2021

In this episode, we explore a 2004 article written by James Dunn on whether Jesus Christ was a Jewish monotheist. Dunn argues from Jesus' pious upbringing, his teachings within the gospel accounts, and the lasting impact upon his earliest followers that Jesus was, in fact, an adherer to monotheism.

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174: Maranatha and the Earliest Christology of the Church

174: Maranatha and the Earliest Christology of the Church

May 27, 2021

In this episode, we explore the often overlooked meaning of the phrase Maranatha, which is an Aramaic expression meaning "Our Lord, Come!" We look into the significance of Paul using this phrase without translating it into Greek for his Greek-speaking audience. We also explore the arguably earliest Aramaic targums to see how the noun mar ("Lord") was used to determining whether Maranatha could refer to Jesus as Yahweh. In the end, we conclude that mar is not a way in which the divine name was reproduced in the Aramaic targums, while mar did refer to human masters and superiors. 

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173: Mark’s High Human Christology (Ch. 15)

173: Mark’s High Human Christology (Ch. 15)

May 20, 2021

In the final episode dealing with Mark's Christology, we look at the events surrounding the crucifixion of Jesus. First, we explore the significance of a concentration of "King of the Jews" references in Mark chapter 15, asking why it is that Mark has waited until Jesus' death to associate this royal title with Jesus. Next, we look at Jesus' citation of Psalm 22 in calling God "My God" and discern a noteworthy literary strategy that draws influence from the original psalm. Lastly, we look at the confession of the Gentile centurion--who calls Jesus the human Son of God--and we explore the significance of this admission for Mark's narrative purposes.

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172: Mark’s High Human Christology (Ch. 14)

172: Mark’s High Human Christology (Ch. 14)

May 13, 2021

In the final days before Jesus' death on the cross, Mark's narrative continues to unpack what it means to be the Son of God. In this episode, we explore the often-overlooked passage where Jesus is anointed with a costly perfume, which arguably furthers Mark's agenda of redefining the meaning of Son of God to include notions of one who dies for the people. Next, we look closely at Jesus' prayer in Gethsemane to better understand the relationship between the Son and the one called "Abba." Lastly, we break down the details in the trial of Jesus, make sense of the connection between the temple and the Son of God, and explain why the charge of blasphemy had nothing to do with a claim to divinity.

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171: The Son is Not Omniscient (Mark 13:32)

171: The Son is Not Omniscient (Mark 13:32)

May 6, 2021

In this episode, we will devote all our attention to Mark 13:32, where Jesus claims his ignorance regarding the exact dating of the Son of Man's coming. Only the Father knows this crucial date. We examine the implications of this admission by Jesus for Mark's Christology and consider if high views of Jesus fit with the conclusions of this verse. We also survey early Christian interpreters of Mark 13:32 to note the various ways they regarded the passage. Lastly, we conclude by observing a unanimous consensus among modern critical scholars on the plain meaning of Mark 13:32.

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170: Mark’s High Human Christology (Ch. 12)

170: Mark’s High Human Christology (Ch. 12)

April 29, 2021

Mark chapter 12 offers much data regarding monotheism, Christology, and Jesus' relationship to God. In this episode, we first explore the Parable of the Wicked Tenants, where Jesus is sent by God and God is portrayed in an interesting manner. Second, we look closely at how Jesus defined the Jewish God, and in doing so, expresses his commitment to unitary monotheism. Lastly, we explore how to make sense of Jesus' statement that the son of David is also the exalted Lord alongside God. 

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169: Mark’s High Human Christology (Ch. 11)

169: Mark’s High Human Christology (Ch. 11)

April 22, 2021

Jesus' entry into Jerusalem entails noteworthy stories regarding his authority and relationship to God. In this episode, we first examine the parodying nature of the triumphal entry and focus on the Christological understanding of the crowds witnessing the event. Second, we look closely at Jesus' actions within the temple and his words towards the new temple community consisting of the disciples. Finally, we explore the nature of the questions from the temple leadership towards Jesus regarding the nature of his authority and from whom he received it. 

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168: No One is Good Except God Alone (Mark 10)

168: No One is Good Except God Alone (Mark 10)

April 15, 2021

This episode focuses entirely on the initial dialogue between the rich young ruler and Jesus, where Jesus plainly deflects the good compliment and claims instead that no one is good but God alone. While this basic statement made by Jesus clearly suggests that he is not the good God, this has not stopped an army of internet apologists from trying to find ways to get the text to say that Jesus really is the good God. We also look at what modern critical scholars on the Gospel of Mark have to say about this passage and we take note of what appears to be a consensus interpretation among them.

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167: Mark’s High Human Christology (Chapter 9)

167: Mark’s High Human Christology (Chapter 9)

April 8, 2021

This episode looks at the portrayals of Jesus within Mark chapter 9. We first explore the account of the Transfiguration to see if we should conclude that Jesus is either divine or a prophet like Moses. We then turn to look at predictions of the suffering Son of Man and ask what this means and where the Old Testament speaks of the suffering of the Son of Man. Lastly, we explore what Mark possibly had in mind when he said that Jesus has been sent by God, asking if this "sending" language implies preexistence. We test out all of the high christological interpretations of these passages and come to the conclusion that Jesus is the highly authorized human agent of God.

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166: Mark’s High Human Christology (Chapters 7-8)

166: Mark’s High Human Christology (Chapters 7-8)

April 1, 2021

Mark is able to tell us about his high Christology by using healing stories of Jesus. We first look at the exorcism of the daughter of the Syrophoenician woman, who offers worship to Jesus and calls him "Lord." We then look at the first of two two-stage healing stories to see how Mark frames miracles by involving multiple steps. Just as the first stage of healing was not enough to fully restore sight to the blind man, the first confession by Peter is not enough to fully understand Mark's Christology. We lastly note that Peter, like the blind man, was in need of healing with his faulty understanding of Jesus' messianic role. After all is said and done, we marvel that Mark has repeatedly portrayed Jesus as a highly authorized human agent of the true God.

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165: Mark’s High Human Christology (Chapter 6)

165: Mark’s High Human Christology (Chapter 6)

March 25, 2021

This episode explores the Christology portrayed in Mark chapter six. We first look at Jesus' hometown rejection, where he outright claims to be a prophetic figure. Next, we examine Jesus' claim to be the shepherd of the sheep. Third, we ask about the Christological portrayal of Jesus when he miraculously divides the loaves and the fish. Lastly, we ask what sort of thing is Jesus saying when he speaks of himself as he walks on the water. It is concluded that Mark depicted Jesus in chapter six as a highly authorized and empowered human agent of God.

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164: Mark’s High Human Christology (Chapters 4-5)

164: Mark’s High Human Christology (Chapters 4-5)

March 18, 2021

As we continue to work through the high christological statements in the Gospel of Mark, we come across three fascinating stories. First, Jesus demonstrates authority over the wind and the seas, something regularly attributed to Yahweh. Second, Jesus receives worship from the demonized man. Lastly, Jesus calls himself "the Lord." This episode explores how these exalted things describing Jesus make the most sense as pertaining to one who is authorized and empowered by God.

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163: Mark’s High Human Christology (Chapters 2-3)

163: Mark’s High Human Christology (Chapters 2-3)

March 11, 2021

As we continue our study in the Gospel of Mark in order to better understand the highest and most exalted things said of Jesus, we come across some interesting passages. Jesus claims to be the Lord of the Sabbath. Jesus also renames disciples and commissions them in ministry. Furthermore, Jesus redefines the family structure. And yet, Jesus performs all these feats while remaining a human being, a highly authorized agent of God. 

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162: Mark’s High Human Christology (Chapters 1-2)

162: Mark’s High Human Christology (Chapters 1-2)

March 4, 2021

Too often, interpreters interested in Christology gravitate to their favorite verses while ignoring passages used by their opponents. This episode begins a study that looks at Mark's Gospel to wrestle with the most difficult things it has to say for the Biblical Unitarian position. We focus on the highest, most exalted claims of Jesus. The goal is to better understand and become more comfortable with all that the Gospel of Mark teaches about Jesus.

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161: The Hallelujah Hymn in Revelation 19

161: The Hallelujah Hymn in Revelation 19

February 25, 2021

The hymn of worship in Revelation 19 is the only occurrence where the proper name of God, Yahweh, is brought forth into the New Testament within the phrase "Hallelujah." This episode explores this hymn to see what it says about Yahweh, his worshippers, and his righteous acts. We also explore the implications for monotheism as we look at how Yahweh is portrayed in this hymn. 

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160: Conquerors Who Worship in Revelation 15

160: Conquerors Who Worship in Revelation 15

February 18, 2021

The hymn of worship in Revelation chapter 15 depicts the ideal readers as conquering persons combined with exodus imagery. We explore how worship is a means of faithful behavior and why the true God is praised as righteous, holy, and in charge. Furthermore, we look at how the Lord God's praise fits within a monotheistic setting to understand better what the early Christians thought about God.

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159: The Victory Hymn in Revelation 12

159: The Victory Hymn in Revelation 12

February 11, 2021

The fifth worship hymn within the Book of Revelation celebrates the inauguration of God's kingdom and the authority of Jesus. Furthermore, the hymn praises the behavior of the faithful people of God in three specific ways. Since the people of God are thoroughly described in this hymn, it raises the question regarding the intended application of worship. Lastly, we explore the nature of monotheism and how the highly exalted Jesus functions alongside the only true God.

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158: The Consummated Kingdom Hymn in Revelation 11

158: The Consummated Kingdom Hymn in Revelation 11

February 4, 2021

At the return of Jesus to consummate the kingdom of God, a hymn breaks out within the narrative of the Book of Revelation. This episode looks at the contents of this call-and-response hymn, asking about how it would serve as praise within the context of suffering and how those praised in the hymn would have been understood within early Christian monotheism. We also note the contents of the worship hymn that celebrate the events of the second coming, which include the judgment of God, the rewarding of the righteous, and the destruction of the wicked.

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157: The Hymn to God and the Lamb in Revelation 7

157: The Hymn to God and the Lamb in Revelation 7

January 28, 2021

This episode explores the call-and-response hymn in Revelation chapter 7. In doing so, we notice that Revelation's ideal readers are offering worship unto both God and to Jesus within a single hymn. We discuss the implications of worshipping the Lamb alongside the only true God and we suggest that God's identity is not threatened within this worship practice.

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156: Why You Should Worship the Lamb (Revelation Chapter 5)

156: Why You Should Worship the Lamb (Revelation Chapter 5)

January 21, 2021

In Revelation chapter 5, the ideal readers initiate a worship hymn to Jesus. In doing so, the reasons for Jesus' worthiness are detailed, giving attentive readers a better understanding of why hymnic praise can (and should) be offered to a highly exalted human being. This episode explores the hymn offered to Jesus and encourages its listeners to become participants, rather than mere readers.

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https://docs.google.com/document/d/1LNsjb7YjJmIYmBo0c-i1ex0gLYikcIwjdrwR8yEDeWQ/edit?usp=sharing 

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155: Hymnic Worship in Revelation Chapter 4

155: Hymnic Worship in Revelation Chapter 4

January 14, 2021

The Book of Revelation offers seven hymns that tell us much about the worship practices of the early church. This episode looks at Revelation's first hymn, located in chapter 4. The object is the one seated upon the throne, who is repeatedly expressed with singular pronouns and verbs. We also look at how the ideal readers of Revelation are invited to participate in this hymn through active worship practices, by singing about God's unique role as the Creator, and even acknowledging creation's preexistence within God's foreknowledge.

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To view the notes from this episode please click the link below:

https://docs.google.com/document/d/1kez50rgZhGr1AocPWj8i50u7I0W23mp0FFunP2fAQSk/edit?usp=sharing 

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154: Jesus as the Word of God in Revelation

154: Jesus as the Word of God in Revelation

January 7, 2021

In Revelation 19:13 Jesus is called "the word of God." Is this a reference to the Prologue of John's Gospel, where the word is with God in the beginning? Or is the word of God a descriptive reference to Jesus' own preaching of the gospel of the kingdom? This episode explores how the phrase "word of God" functions in the Book of Revelation, looking closely at Jesus himself as a faithful witness of the good news.

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To view the notes from this episode please click the link below:

https://docs.google.com/document/d/1Yq-JzO444fpPKt5Hke7eo0BPcQe1hkiRv_iTggM_opE/edit?usp=sharing    

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153: The Christology of the Covenantal Groom

153: The Christology of the Covenantal Groom

December 31, 2020

Within both testaments of the Bible, the covenant is often portrayed in terms of a marriage. While the Hebrew Bible regards Yahweh as the covenantal husband, the New Testament unambiguously insists that the husband is now Jesus. This episode explores how both testaments depict the marriage metaphor within the covenant relationship in order to discern the Christological implications of the husband/groom.

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To view the notes from this episode please click the link below:

https://docs.google.com/document/d/1YY29bln8YjHz0LeXvpruYisbKo00REQiG4daSyM3SiU/edit?usp=sharing   

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152: The Unholy and Holy Triads in the Book of Revelation

152: The Unholy and Holy Triads in the Book of Revelation

December 24, 2020

Biblical scholars and commentaries on the Book of Revelation often portray the three antagonists--the dragon, the beast, and the false prophet--loosely as the "unholy Trinity." The implication is that the unholy Trinity must be the evil counterpart to the "Holy Trinity." This episode explores these concepts and examines whether "trinity" is an appropriate term for the three antagonists. We also look at the parallels between the unholy triad and the holy triad to see if the doctrine of the Trinity is actually presented in the Book of Revelation. 

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To view the notes from this episode please click the link below:

https://docs.google.com/document/d/1OLF9kNiWfQRaqvZMjeDfujFR8mYNxvBktNjnnTMFg88/edit?usp=sharing  

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151: The Leto Myth and Christology in Revelation 12

151: The Leto Myth and Christology in Revelation 12

December 17, 2020

Revelation 12:1-6 depicts the cosmic struggle between the woman and the dragon. While modern readers are probably correct in interpreting these figures are the people of God and the devil, they often fail to note that this story is a retelling of an ancient mythic fable involving the woman Leto and the dragon Python. This episode explores the Leto Myth and compares it with its Christian retelling in Revelation 12 in order to see the Christology presented for Revelation's readers to adopt.

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To view the notes from this episode please click the link below:

https://docs.google.com/document/d/1X4olm2ZmjwGHe6TCo16RATR1wjCepLpnNSkIrC3XJaU/edit?usp=sharing    

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150: The Lion and Lamb

150: The Lion and Lamb

December 10, 2020

The Christology within the Book of Revelation portrays Jesus as both a lion and a lamb. This episode explores these images, asks about their messianic significance, and places special emphasis on the literary motif where the lamb further defines the manner in which Jesus conquered as a lion. The result is that Jesus is thoroughly regarded as a human ruler who descended from a long line of notable Israelite persons.

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To view the notes from this episode please click the link below:

https://docs.google.com/document/d/13MrOT9GGOnSUTgTgOURtg_9gaIdYOSQrWad18DGZLQU/edit?usp=sharing     

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149: Jesus Speaks to the Churches of Asia Minor - Part 3 of 3

149: Jesus Speaks to the Churches of Asia Minor - Part 3 of 3

December 3, 2020

As Jesus speaks to the Christian communities in Philadelphia and Laodecia, much can be gathered about the Christology presented in the Book of Revelation. Various titles insist that Jesus is a trustworthy and reliable speaker. Furthermore, Jesus differentiates himself from God, who is identified as Jesus' God and Jesus' Father. Moreover, we learn that God has shared his prerogatives of kingship and dominion with the risen and exalted Jesus.

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To view the notes from this episode please click the link below:

https://docs.google.com/document/d/13SU_BuFy9couiUrtUPnV4zzdIvrviqsy3g2E_MUjpN4/edit?usp=sharing    

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148: Jesus Speaks to the Churches of Asia Minor - Part 2

148: Jesus Speaks to the Churches of Asia Minor - Part 2

November 26, 2020

When Jesus reveals himself to the churches in Thyatira and Sardis, we learn much about the Christology of the Book of Revelation. This episode explores how Jesus presents himself to these two Christian communities. We pay special attention to how Jesus frames himself in light of the history and social setting of these cities. Furthermore, we note how Jesus still has a God, who is the Father of Jesus. 

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To view the notes from this episode please click the link below:

https://docs.google.com/document/d/1UcEwvHEQfiFuTYOj7S9XPX_XLbDuNdHgVboH9ZANTVA/edit?usp=sharing   

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147: Jesus Speaks to the Churches of Asia Minor - Part 1

147: Jesus Speaks to the Churches of Asia Minor - Part 1

November 19, 2020

The risen Jesus appeared to John the Seer and told him to write what he saw to seven churches in Asia Minor. Within these letters, Jesus speaks in ways that reveal a lot about who he is and the authority he possesses. This episode explores the first three letters to the seven churches in Revelation to see what we can learn about Jesus. What we find is a Jesus that makes the most sense within a high human christological paradigm.

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To view the notes from this episode please click the link below:

https://docs.google.com/document/d/1VBkVTF-okPtTrkDFeR6Lk0Rjyyc_MEXAK0dVKsf0pK4/edit?usp=sharing  

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146: The Appearance of Jesus to John in the Book of Revelation

146: The Appearance of Jesus to John in the Book of Revelation

November 12, 2020

In Revelation chapter 1, the exalted Jesus appears to John the Seer. John offers readers many descriptions of Jesus that reveal much about his personal Christology. This episode looks at seven of these characteristics and examines them from a Jewish theological perspective, from a Roman imperial perspective, and from a scriptural allusion perspective. What we find is that Jesus is a highly exalted and greatly authorized human being. 

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To view the notes from this episode please click the link below:

https://docs.google.com/document/d/1319nifU40wA7UxnBMWHxUI-ISGD8cB3LCFDNKJzfqHM/edit?usp=sharing 

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145: Does the Book of Revelation Portray Jesus as God? 2 Test Cases

145: Does the Book of Revelation Portray Jesus as God? 2 Test Cases

November 5, 2020

In this episode, we explore the implications of Jesus being described in terms that associate him with the Lord God. Our first test case examines the combined biblical citations of God being pierced and the Son of Man. The second test case seeks to understand the meaning of the title "Alpha and Omega" which is used by the Lord God and by Jesus. We conclude that Jesus Christ is regularly portrayed as an authorized human being who has received prerogatives, kingship, and glory from the true God. 

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To view the notes from this episode please click the link below:

https://docs.google.com/document/d/1g1RBDQK9x-W0zFn6HjFslaGcdEyOY9fJNSJ-O5q30ik/edit?usp=sharing 

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144: Introducing the Christology in the Book of Revelation

144: Introducing the Christology in the Book of Revelation

October 29, 2020

The Book of Revelation has much to say about the person and identity of Jesus Christ. This episode introduces the Christology of Revelation by looking at how Jesus is portrayed in the opening verses of the first chapter. We note that Revelation depicts Jesus as subordinate to God, Jesus is distinguished from God, and that Jesus was faithful to God. 

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To view the notes from this episode please click the link below:

https://docs.google.com/document/d/1Bt7k4pwMV-SOi-cIq9pcaX7G2FJVKS3KFKo0LSv8IrY/edit?usp=sharing        

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143: Who is the True God Revealed in John’s Apocalypse?

143: Who is the True God Revealed in John’s Apocalypse?

October 22, 2020

The Book of Revelation is known for its images and metaphors. This episode explores how Revelation reveals the person and identity of the true God. The most powerful image for God is that he is the one seated upon the throne. This image, which expresses the truths that God is in charge and he is ruling, is later employed within the narrative of Revelation to show that the exalted Jesus shares in God's rule. The Book of Revelation is also clear that the true God is the God of Jesus. Lastly, we note that the one seated upon the throne is to be the God of the intended readers.

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To view the notes from this episode please click the link below:

https://docs.google.com/document/d/10CdK-Sjju0B8KHz9ltCE-YfBUbt3b2S3YlyUmhtNw5w/edit?usp=sharing         

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142: Individual Human Beings Expressed with Plural Forms

142: Individual Human Beings Expressed with Plural Forms

October 15, 2020

While the Hebrew concept called the "plural of majesty" described the one God with plural forms in order to heighten his excellence, what are we to make of plural forms used of individual human beings? This episode looks at instances in the Hebrew Bible where human individuals are portrayed with plural nouns, not unlike the plural of majesty examples. If plural forms can be used to describe human beings when it is clear that only one individual is in view, then the same conclusions should be drawn when plural forms are used of the Lord God, who is one person.

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To view the notes from this episode please click the link below:

https://docs.google.com/document/d/1c3DR9fxuF_d47RPTYj5rIiGdEhXdRVkE48n3QUFQAt8/edit?usp=sharing        

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141: Looking Further into God’s Plural of Majesty

141: Looking Further into God’s Plural of Majesty

October 8, 2020

As we continue to look at the plural of majesty, which seeks to explain how Israel's one God came to be expressed in occasional plural forms, we see that God's holiness is poetically depicted in the plural. We also explore references to God as the Creator and even as the covenant husband of Israel are sometimes in the plural. Lastly, we find that the plural of majesty has extended into biblical Aramaic sections of Scripture, particularly in regard to God as the Most High.

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https://docs.google.com/document/d/1WQK19EMVdUx-A--RlO6KrpErIL2UwKLad778dZyLmgI/edit?usp=sharing       

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140: God’s Plural of Majesty in the Psalms

140: God’s Plural of Majesty in the Psalms

October 1, 2020

The God revealed in the Old Testament is awesome and majestic, but this God is still a single, undivided self--one person. He is expressed in plural forms, like elohim, for intensification purposes, and this is regarded by Hebrew gramarrians as the plural of majesty. This episode explores how the plural of majesty is expressed throughout the Hebrew poetry of Psalms, where plural forms indicative of intensification are observed in verbs and multiple references for God's temple dwelling.

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To view the notes from this episode please click the link below:

https://docs.google.com/document/d/1PkgFXUizT2s_u6R0u-B9H93-z9zVdBubm31MWv5xJRM/edit?usp=sharing      

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139: An Introduction to the Plural of Majesty within the Hebrew Bible

139: An Introduction to the Plural of Majesty within the Hebrew Bible

September 24, 2020

Does the plural form of the Hebrew noun elohim indicate that Yahweh is a plurality of persons? Hebrew grammarians call this concept the "plural of majesty"--namely when elohim is paired with singular verbs to indicate that God is only one person (not two or three persons). This episode introduces the "plural of majesty" in order to better understand the significance of plural references to God within the Hebrew Bible.

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To view the notes from this episode please click the link below:

https://docs.google.com/document/d/1eUH1N3_o2mafBTM2FrzHMZ7RtptKeg--1hOKPQm126E/edit?usp=sharing     

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138: Malachi 3:1 and the Preexistence of Jesus

138: Malachi 3:1 and the Preexistence of Jesus

September 17, 2020

Apologists for the preexistence of Jesus Christ sometimes suggest that Malachi 3:1 is proof of their claim. This episode looks closely at Malachi 3:1 to see what it says, if anything, about the preexistence of Jesus. We listen to the wisdom of biblical scholars on Malachi to see what they have to say. We also consider how the New Testament authors interpret Malachi 3:1.

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To view the notes from this episode please click the link below:

https://docs.google.com/document/d/11CKws0mTrkaMZHcS8fHWwump57faalbJ0Ef_UItYrGs/edit?usp=sharing    

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137: The Miller/Smith Debate on Jesus’ Preexistence - Audience Q&A

137: The Miller/Smith Debate on Jesus’ Preexistence - Audience Q&A

September 10, 2020

This episode of the Biblical Unitarian Podcast lets us tune into the never before released live Q&A that took place after my recent debate on whether Jesus Christ consciously preexisted his birth. You can listen to the debate in its entirety here: https://youtu.be/Nmg_y4q4RsQ.

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To view the notes from this episode please click the link below:

https://docs.google.com/document/d/1xB7iDoF8tOo1m1dt88ECESlV4ARTFzRHehJ7Nn9MN6w/edit?usp=sharing     

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136: The Miller/Smith Debate on Jesus’ Preexistence - Cross-Examination and Closing Statements

136: The Miller/Smith Debate on Jesus’ Preexistence - Cross-Examination and Closing Statements

September 3, 2020

In this episode, we get to hear the final portions of my recent debate regarding whether Jesus Christ preexisted his birth consciously. In particular, we will listen to the cross-examination and the closing statements. I also offer some insider perspective on why I chose the cross-examination question that I used as well as some thoughts on the conclusion of the debate.

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To view the notes from this episode please click the link below:

https://docs.google.com/document/d/1k9PWcHEd5o2PWojFEsPnEXvdGJVgDbwoXtKIt0xc69g/edit?usp=sharing    

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135: The Miller/Smith Debate on Jesus’ Preexistence - First and Second Rebuttals

135: The Miller/Smith Debate on Jesus’ Preexistence - First and Second Rebuttals

August 27, 2020

In this episode, we listen to the next segment of my recent debate/dialogue with Mr. Eric Miller on the nature of Jesus' preexistence. Eric Miller argued that Jesus did consciously preexist his birth while I argued that Jesus came into existence at his birth. We both have a chance to offer two rebuttals, with Mr. Miller beginning and with me following afterward. I offer some insights and commentary on why I framed my two rebuttals in the manner that I did. Feel free to listen to the debate in its entirety here: https://youtu.be/Nmg_y4q4RsQ 

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To view the notes from this episode please click the link below:

https://docs.google.com/document/d/1ENlEgadWg1dXUqpUzoC8tZQNh-fMMxXjjJfHpzRuR8s/edit?usp=sharing   

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134: The Miller/Smith Debate on Jesus’ Preexistence - Opening Statements

134: The Miller/Smith Debate on Jesus’ Preexistence - Opening Statements

August 20, 2020

In this week's episode, we will listen to the opening statements of my recent debate with Mr. Eric Miller on the nature of Jesus' preexistence. I also offer a few reflections on the debate. To listen to the entire debate, click on this link: https://youtu.be/Nmg_y4q4RsQ 

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To view the notes from this episode please click the link below:

https://docs.google.com/document/d/1XMOlDtwGV3B3atm3YT3S55Z_ONiqe-K_T3m6jHFqv5Q/edit?usp=sharing   

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