The Biblical Unitarian Podcast
225: Defining Adonai

225: Defining Adonai

May 19, 2022

This week's episode explores the popular noun Adonai as it describes the God of Israel. We define its meaning and show how its form is plural but singular in function. We then look at biblical examples to demonstrate that the authors of the Hebrew Bible employed the title Adonai to depict God as a single person. We also examine whether Adonai is a plural of majesty word and why that is noteworthy. Lastly, we discuss the significance of the long Jewish history of using Adonai as a polite circumlocution for the divine name. 

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https://docs.google.com/document/d/1ctOrMNsH7tKgzG_r06lbCVlQg4sDrPuV8js2d3-ubJs/edit?usp=sharing         

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224: Defining Elohim

224: Defining Elohim

May 12, 2022

After Yahweh, the Hebrew word elohim is the most common noun in the Hebrew Bible. This episode explores the word elohim in its relation to the one true God of Israel. We examine the meaning of the plural form and ask what this means when referencing the Israelite God regularly defined as a single person. We also explore the grammatical concept called the "plural of majesty" and look at how it pertains to the plural noun elohim. Lastly, we take note of the noun elohim being used to portray individual authorized human agents of God and draw conclusions from this important data.  

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https://docs.google.com/document/d/16F8nxTakxpX8ePvqnHF__INjus3BPdaxi9couwLqZU8/edit?usp=sharing        

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223: Defining Yahweh

223: Defining Yahweh

May 5, 2022

The true God has a name, and that name is Yahweh. This episode explores the person of Yahweh and the ways in which he is portrayed in the Hebrew Bible. We examine if "Yahweh" is even the correct pronunciation of the divine name. We also seek to understand if Yahweh is depicted as the Father alone or if he is a multi-personal God. Lastly, we explore the ways in which Yahweh is differentiated from the promised messianic king. 

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https://docs.google.com/document/d/13blMpZcArHErh7SkmsiKhKCTDzv5ibI8FrgSrvi5-kg/edit?usp=sharing        

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222: The Final Misunderstanding in John’s Gospel

222: The Final Misunderstanding in John’s Gospel

April 28, 2022

In this final episode dealing with the instances of misunderstanding in the Fourth Gospel, we see Jesus telling his disciples about the forthcoming time of grief when he will be taken away followed by a time of joy. Some of the disciples deliberate as to what Jesus means with this cryptic saying. This results in Jesus clarifying the misunderstanding in a manner that redirects readers forward into the narrative, towards the death and resurrection. Lastly, we summarize our findings from this series on the theme of misunderstandings in the Gospel of John. 

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To view the notes from this episode please click the link below:

https://docs.google.com/document/d/1yvEydf6pb30B_WYeYnDoplX-3jZazHKeU-DADEbrBRY/edit?usp=sharing        

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221: The Father’s Agent, Misunderstood (John 14)

221: The Father’s Agent, Misunderstood (John 14)

April 21, 2022

In this week's episode, we explore the confusion surrounding the role and function of the Jewish agent. Jesus tells his disciples in John chapter 14 that they have known and seen the Father, but what Jesus really means is that he himself has been acting as the Father's authorized agent all this time. We also examine some of the ways in which the Gospel of John portrays Jesus as the definitive agent of God--bearing God's roles, works, and authority as an obedient and subordinate human son. 

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https://docs.google.com/document/d/14RE-WYPWV9FtZyKi8dG2eMUIqhAlIgD_U6-jQ-zrdeY/edit?usp=sharing       

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220: The Way to the Father, Misunderstood in John 14

220: The Way to the Father, Misunderstood in John 14

April 14, 2022

In this episode, we explore the misunderstanding that arises when Jesus speaks about the way to the Father. Thomas, a well-known doubter, fails to grasp that Jesus is speaking about himself as the way. When Jesus clarifies the misunderstanding of Thomas, he claims to be the definitive way to the Father, following with an equal claim of being the truth and the life. We explore what these characteristics mean for the Christology of the Gospel of John and the manner in which they are deliberately drawn from the poetry about God's personified wisdom in Proverbs. 

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https://docs.google.com/document/d/14r3Jbuc4RBtkVReHTouRNiCXW9S4qhOL6Djh9PkZJ48/edit?usp=sharing       

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219: Misunderstood Discipleship in John 13

219: Misunderstood Discipleship in John 13

April 7, 2022

In this week's episode, we explore the conversation on the topic of discipleship that takes place between Jesus and Peter. Peter, who makes a bold statement about his commitment to following Jesus without counting the costs of discipleship, misunderstands Jesus and ends up denying him three times shortly thereafter. This episode also examines what it means for Jesus to be glorified as a martyr, who it is who glorifies Jesus, and how Peter's death is discussed after Jesus' resurrection. 

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To view the notes from this episode please click the link below:

https://docs.google.com/document/d/10GnLu2YbSCnfP09fCddt1Oi-_uen4-esOXlKdUNsaIM/edit?usp=sharing       

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218: The Misunderstood Son of Man in John 12

218: The Misunderstood Son of Man in John 12

March 31, 2022

In John 12, Jesus declares himself to be the Son of Man who will be lifted up in a manner that causes confusion among the crowds. They fail to understand how the messianic Son of Man--who is supposed to remain forever according to Jewish theology--will be lifted away. Jesus, however, is speaking about his impending death when he will be lifted up on the cross to both die and be glorified. This episode explores the misunderstanding surrounding the act of Jesus being lifted up and considers what Jesus' words might mean for Christological reflection. 

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To view the notes from this episode please click the link below:

https://docs.google.com/document/d/1kGTZmXkbg7O4-_BTFsTxflba9ARj4GDxs9Pw8wUQKV8/edit?usp=sharing      

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217: The Misunderstood Resurrection in John 11

217: The Misunderstood Resurrection in John 11

March 24, 2022

In yet another example of the Johannine theme of misunderstanding, Jesus speaks about Lazarus rising from the grave in a way that raises the question of timing and the identity of the one who is to perform this miracle. In this episode, we look at how Martha misunderstands Jesus and the manner in which Jesus corrects her confusion. We also explore the Christological significance of Jesus' self-declaration to be the resurrection and the life in addition to examining the climactic confession of faith uttered by Martha.

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To view the notes from this episode please click the link below:

https://docs.google.com/document/d/1I_8PhXZFJWxhkeF9F_Ma0rCPkRHyzLrubey-fOBzjjg/edit?usp=sharing     

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216: The Misunderstood Sleep (John 11)

216: The Misunderstood Sleep (John 11)

March 17, 2022

In John chapter 11, Jesus attends to his friend Lazarus who has sadly fallen asleep. Jesus' disciples misunderstand Jesus, thinking he is speaking of the natural sleep that takes place each night, while Jesus was actually speaking of the sleep of death. This episode explores the theme of misunderstanding pertaining to the sleep of death and examines the Christological implications of a human being--Jesus Christ--bearing the divine prerogative of giving life to the dead.

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To view the notes from this episode please click the link below:

https://docs.google.com/document/d/1Z6B-FFqPWjNs1LMJlz8nIhaABfhUcJ_O_f_yGccW9Mw/edit?usp=sharing    

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215: The Misunderstanding About Abraham Seeing Jesus’ Day (John 8)

215: The Misunderstanding About Abraham Seeing Jesus’ Day (John 8)

March 10, 2022

In the final instance of misunderstanding in John 8, Jesus speaks about Abraham rejoicing to see the day of Messiah. The Jews mishear Jesus and accuse him of claiming to be old enough to have seen Abraham. In Jesus' clarification to the misunderstanding, we come to the disputed text where Jesus states that "I am he" who was before Abraham was born. This episode explores the theme of misunderstanding and how it helps us better understand Jesus' clarification in John 8:58. We also look at the topic of Jewish preeexistence and note two distinct ways it was conveyed in Jewish literature. 

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To view the notes from this episode please click the link below:

https://docs.google.com/document/d/1PW5DOYMZwH0KPdl6a7z7zJ7_dhYjA2AgBJlMP5MgIlo/edit?usp=sharing    

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214: Jesus’ Promised Life, Misunderstood (John 8)

214: Jesus’ Promised Life, Misunderstood (John 8)

March 3, 2022

When Jesus promises that those who keep his word will never see death, his Jewish opponents misunderstand him on two points. This episode explores the theme of misunderstanding and the ways in which Jesus is misheard, both in regard to the life he has to offer as a prerogative belonging to the Father and in regard to the identity of Jesus as God's authorized Messiah. We also look at how Jesus agrees with and reaffirms Jewish monotheism, which portrayed the one God as the Father alone. 

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To view the notes from this episode please click the link below:

https://docs.google.com/document/d/1AWEoHM2AHzIOaE_CQGqRpzpaP1JFcMCFZeedFw-SWd8/edit?usp=sharing   

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213: Misunderstood Freedom Offered by Jesus (John 8)

213: Misunderstood Freedom Offered by Jesus (John 8)

February 24, 2022

As we continue to study the many misunderstandings thematically embedded in the Gospel of John, we come across Jesus speaking about the freedom offered by the Son of God. This immediately raises questions about the nature of freedom, what really enslaves humanity, and the definition of a son in comparison to his father. We also discuss the importance of Jesus' claim to be a human being and the Jewish confession to unitary monotheism. 

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To view the notes from this episode please click the link below:

https://docs.google.com/document/d/1HjSsiThnkRNjyc2rdsjpGCwMAZ-0B8nispb4444jLjg/edit?usp=sharing   

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212: Jesus’ Misunderstood Death (John 8)

212: Jesus’ Misunderstood Death (John 8)

February 17, 2022

As we continue to explore the many instances of the theme of misunderstanding in the 8th chapter of the Gospel of John, we arrive at Jesus speaking ambiguously about his own death. In doing so, Jesus introduces the concept of dying in one's own sin and why failing to believe in him will bring about that consequence. As we explore the nature of Jesus' misunderstood words, we come to better understand his messianic role, his relationship with the only true God, and the importance of correctly confessing him with an intelligent christology.  

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To view the notes from this episode please click the link below:

https://docs.google.com/document/d/17IrVai_8JRLxBUuXFv6sJiDxjRxhurD-eLgmcfGa1yk/edit?usp=sharing   

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211: Jesus’ Misunderstood Father (John 8)

211: Jesus’ Misunderstood Father (John 8)

February 10, 2022

As we begin our study of the many misunderstandings thematically presented in John chapter 8, we come across Jesus speaking about his Father. The dialoguing Pharisees seek to understand who Jesus' Father is, assuming that Jesus is referring to an ordinary human father. However, Jesus is referring to God the Father, and by calling God his own Father, Jesus is making a self-declaration to be the Son of that Father--the messianic Son of God. 

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To view the notes from this episode please click the link below:

https://docs.google.com/document/d/1UgX3M6EyYWRjr9zVsMMT2vhVQ39GG621RqLJFJ6tooY/edit?usp=sharing    

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210: Jesus’ Misunderstood Ascension (John 7)

210: Jesus’ Misunderstood Ascension (John 7)

February 3, 2022

This week, we explore the dialogue between Jesus and the Jews that results in a misunderstanding over where Jesus is going (to which he cannot be followed). The Jews seem to misunderstand Jesus on a geographic level as well as in regard to who sent Jesus. We look closely at the misunderstanding, attempt to make sense of what Jesus did in fact mean, and how his words and deeds result in proper Christology. 

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To view the notes from this episode please click the link below:

https://docs.google.com/document/d/1ddvWIXPmtQP-7tkHlmXibDiXTXnrQnVSuDgUUNX-Cj4/edit?usp=sharing     

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209: Eating Jesus’ Misunderstood Flesh in John 6

209: Eating Jesus’ Misunderstood Flesh in John 6

January 27, 2022

As we continue to explore the theme of misunderstanding in the Fourth Gospel, we come upon Jesus speaking about the need to eat his flesh. The grumbling Jews misunderstand Jesus by taking his words literally to the point of absurdity. However, Jesus was speaking about the feasting that takes place in the Eucharist meal where those who commune with the Son of Man are able to receive eternal life from the bread of life. In other words, Jesus' intended meaning has much to say about his own self-understanding of Christology and the sacrament of communion. 

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To view the notes from this episode please click the link below:

https://docs.google.com/document/d/1alwY3XuzUEriTms_y5KbZKq-ZYL8c-AI22KkKNZhIKo/edit?usp=sharing    

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208: The Misunderstood Bread From Heaven in John 6

208: The Misunderstood Bread From Heaven in John 6

January 20, 2022

In another example of the Johannine theme of misunderstanding, Jesus claims to be the bread of life that has come down out of heaven. While the crowds are eager for this food, Jesus was actually pointing to himself as the locus of God's life, offered to those who believe. This episode explores the misunderstanding that took place, what Jesus meant with his statement, and how the self-designation fits into the narratives Wisdom Christology.

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To view the notes from this episode please click the link below:

https://docs.google.com/document/d/1bCN2pFHLgstSsNW9ICdp1fQXJujXWvV26-lJRbsRE3Q/edit?usp=sharing   

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207: Jesus’ Misunderstood Food in John 4

207: Jesus’ Misunderstood Food in John 4

January 13, 2022

Having previously discussed the difference between ordinary and spiritual water, Jesus defines his own food as obediently doing the will of Him who sent Jesus. This episode explores this exchange between Jesus and his disciples wherein a misunderstanding takes place regarding the proper meaning of Jesus' food. As Jesus clarifies the disciples' misunderstanding, he refers to himself as an empowered agent, sent to perform the will and works of the true God. 

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To view the notes from this episode please click the link below:

https://docs.google.com/document/d/1dMVN3zlrbSY4z4lGo_p4UGZudV1KuXjl_AVX3zfw20U/edit?usp=sharing   

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206: The Samaritan Woman’s Misunderstanding in John 4

206: The Samaritan Woman’s Misunderstanding in John 4

January 6, 2022

In this week's episode, we explore the exchange between Jesus and a woman from Samaria. Jesus' discussion about the gift of living water is misunderstood as a reference to ordinary water, but Jesus is pointing to the gift of the spirit of God as well as to his own unique role as God's messianic agent. We look closely at the misunderstanding offered by the Samaritan woman and her developing christological view of Jesus within John chapter 4. 

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To view the notes from this episode please click the link below:

https://docs.google.com/document/d/1fxiomhsHcFXoveCLotl2iwZ898ERmP-tVfuJlpTTyEE/edit?usp=sharing   

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205: Understanding Nicodemus’ Misunderstanding in John 3

205: Understanding Nicodemus’ Misunderstanding in John 3

December 30, 2021

This week’s episode will explore the dialogue between Jesus and Nicodemus in John chapter 3. We look at what it means to be "born again" (and discuss if that is actually the best translation for what Jesus meant). We place the words of Nicodemus into the outline of the theme of misunderstanding, figure out where he misheard Jesus, and what Jesus actually meant. Afterwards, we look further into the conversation to see what a correct comprehension of the theme of misunderstanding might help illuminate the difficult passage of John 3:13.

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To view the notes from this episode please click the link below:

https://docs.google.com/document/d/1Jq1UClpY8aliJujtiMXkkLBokkHU0CojfnFnrK3KrnU/edit?usp=sharing   

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204: An Introduction to the Theme of Misunderstanding in the Gospel of John

204: An Introduction to the Theme of Misunderstanding in the Gospel of John

December 23, 2021

In the Gospel of John, there is a narrative device that scholars call the theme of misunderstanding. This episode will introduce the theme, explain how it functions, talk about what scholars have to say about it, and examine it in a test case involving Jesus and the temple to be destroyed and raised.

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To view the notes from this episode please click the link below:

https://docs.google.com/document/d/19McYR8AWfyQjmETlkPq4Vo-mM7Yy-nWv_bdEd6XQb44/edit?usp=sharing    

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203: More Arguments For God Being Only One Person

203: More Arguments For God Being Only One Person

December 16, 2021

This episode continues the topic from the previous week, which sought to examine how the one true God is portrayed as a single person in passages of the New Testament that are not typically considered in these sorts of discussions. This episode will explore passages from 2 Corinthians to the Book of Revelation where God is portrayed by the biblical authors as a single self, one person. 

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To view the notes from this episode please click the link below:

https://docs.google.com/document/d/1w6tL2ASOn-9BwOyCOBdvL5q3TJhxTd-WAADJF7N97K0/edit?usp=sharing   

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202: An Untapped Argument For God Being Only One Person (Part 1 of 2)

202: An Untapped Argument For God Being Only One Person (Part 1 of 2)

December 9, 2021

In the Greek New Testament, there are many ways in which the true God is portrayed as a single person. While it is common to point to verses stressing God’s oneness and the Shema, there are other ways in which the Greek expresses this important truth. This week’s episode will begin to explore how independent pronouns–both reflective and intensive–are used to highlight the clear fact that God is only one person. We will also look at Greek verbs where God is the subject and the verb is used in the middle voice–indicating that God is doing the action himself–thus further stressing the fact that he is a single person.

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To view the notes from this episode please click the link below:

https://docs.google.com/document/d/1a4nThc22bZXjp1LP8Whb-paDgAgQOM7nW5PpiOpN9So/edit?usp=sharing  

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201: An Appeal to Seek Truth

201: An Appeal to Seek Truth

December 2, 2021

This episode offers reflections from four years of podcasting in the form of ten tips for exploring, seeking, teaching, and discerning truth as we aim to honor the one true God and his human son, Jesus Christ.

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To view the notes from this episode please click the link below:

https://docs.google.com/document/d/1SYlQDV5HfRC9u68HhZmVb0Nd_Ww_cqyI6htEI-yZrpc/edit?usp=sharing 

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200: Debate Closing Statements and Reflections

200: Debate Closing Statements and Reflections

November 25, 2021

In our 200th episode, we listen to the closing statements from the recent debate on the Unitarian God in the Old Testament, I then bring on Brandon Duke to interview regarding the debate, the arguments therein, and whether there should be further debates in the future. If you would like to see the debate in its entirety, follow this link: https://youtu.be/b0t90eJe0q4 

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To view the notes from this episode please click the link below:

https://docs.google.com/document/d/1gdmS6_f01VMecx_PxYZmo7y9Lc5GGgjBnyF1sYcubzc/edit?usp=sharing  

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199: Second Cross-Examination Reactions in the Recent OT Debate

199: Second Cross-Examination Reactions in the Recent OT Debate

November 18, 2021

In this episode, we listen to the second cross-examination portion of the recent debate entitled, "Does the Old Testament Teach Unitarianism?". I offer my hindsight reactions and perspectives on the ways in which Kelly Powers answered my questions, discuss what his answers say about the strength of his case, and offer my feelings about declaring a winner of the debate. You can watch the debate in its entirety here: https://youtu.be/b0t90eJe0q4  

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To view the notes from this episode please click the link below:

https://docs.google.com/document/d/1ypNjKAaIPd8whJDL4VIEVNUtX0iUMSEGLt7lT92o68o/edit?usp=sharing  

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198: First Cross-Examination Reactions In the Recent OT Debate

198: First Cross-Examination Reactions In the Recent OT Debate

November 11, 2021

This week's episode will focus on the first cross-examination portion of the recent debate "Does the Old Testament Teach Unitarianism?". I also offer some personal reactions to the answers revealed in the cross-examination as well as assess the strength of the opposition position. You can find the entire debate video here: https://youtu.be/b0t90eJe0q4 

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https://docs.google.com/document/d/1C8SDeT_2Qd49qBjE1wdoPrkJEWk7IkECJZHaNTznVqM/edit?usp=sharing   

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197: Reacting to the Rebuttals In the Recent OT Debate

197: Reacting to the Rebuttals In the Recent OT Debate

November 4, 2021

This episode explores the rebuttal phase of the recent debate entitled, "Does the Old Testament Teach Unitarianism?". I offer my insider strategies for preparing for a rebuttal as well as share my reactions to my opponent's attempt to rebut my opening statement. You can watch the debate in its entirety here: https://youtu.be/b0t90eJe0q4 

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https://docs.google.com/document/d/119vYZ5mCfNRxx9ICzxekfgK_4vi4nQ_bWup-emqDNAY/edit?usp=sharing 

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196: Reflections and Opening Statements From the Recent OT Debate

196: Reflections and Opening Statements From the Recent OT Debate

October 28, 2021

This episode will feature the opening statements of my recent debate on the topic "Does the Old Testament Teach Unitarianism?" with Kelly Powers. I open by discussing my reasons for organizing my opening statement in the manner that I did, my overarching strategy, and a few of my observations. You can watch the debate in its entirety here: https://youtu.be/b0t90eJe0q4  

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https://docs.google.com/document/d/1agLilpCgdMUjSMDXTyyQWofeBbcKeklcg7mZrOWUytI/edit?usp=sharing 

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195: Jesus, The Human High Priest

195: Jesus, The Human High Priest

October 21, 2021

The author of Hebrews offers a unique contribution to New Testament theology by portraying Jesus as the high priest. This episode explores the theology surrounding Jesus' high priesthood, looking at how the author of Hebrews understands this role and its wider purposes. We also discuss how Jesus came to inherit the position, the ways in which Jesus is qualified, how Jesus' priesthood is superior to Aaron's, and the ways Jesus' role relates to the God who installed Jesus in this new priesthood. 

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https://docs.google.com/document/d/1lt8XRp8yrv_vK5C6vakVwF92pZr_saVZGbXcnI-ftKc/edit?usp=sharing 

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194: The Human Jesus in Hebrews Chapter 2

194: The Human Jesus in Hebrews Chapter 2

October 14, 2021

The latter part of Hebrew chapter 2 is one of the Bible's most persuasive and extended arguments for Jesus' humanity. The passage cites two quotations from the Old Testament in order to demonstrate that Jesus has human brothers and sisters. It argues that Jesus was likened to human beings in all things, including mortality, ability to be tempted, and possessing a faithful relationship with God. We also discuss translation issues with a passage that led many medieval interpreters to think that Jesus preexisted as the Son of God and eventually took upon himself human nature--a reading that has been completely abandoned by modern scholars.

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To view the notes from this episode please click the link below:

https://docs.google.com/document/d/1MBq9UWKCdYZOx4JMaqfSnBdAPCFT7Dwvx2oaAXKmG44/edit?usp=sharing  

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193: Interpreting the Number “One” Christologically in Hebrews 2:11

193: Interpreting the Number “One” Christologically in Hebrews 2:11

October 7, 2021

The grammatically ambiguous reference to the number one in Hebrews 2:11 opens the door for two competing interpretations, both with significant implications for Biblical Unitarians. Does the passage indicate that Jesus and the believers all derive from a single creator--the Father alone? Or did the author of Hebrews intend to portray Jesus as sharing the same humanity as believers? This episode will explore Hebrews 2:11 and its lesser-known ambiguous reference, drawing theological conclusions thereafter. 

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https://docs.google.com/document/d/19v9Bps0A9Af6ysIFNrTsLxJ4rdUb011mrt0Zv3QpVUk/edit?usp=sharing  

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192: The Christological Impact of Psalm 8 in Hebrews 2

192: The Christological Impact of Psalm 8 in Hebrews 2

September 30, 2021

Although Psalm 8 is cited and alluded to frequently in the New Testament, Biblical Unitarians have only seldom used it in their portrayals of Jesus. This episode looks at Hebrews chapter 2 and its use of Psalm 8 in order to better understand its Christological impact. We discuss the differences between the Hebrew version and the Greek version of Psalm 8, the meaning of the phrase "He made him lower," the importance of God sharing his attributes with a human creature, and the implications of all things being subjected under the human Jesus' feet.

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To view the notes from this episode please click the link below:

https://docs.google.com/document/d/1G13L2b06FtmBtCsF2l0wjBuDX4YIS7QYVXZSDyGbxpg/edit?usp=sharing  

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191: Making Sense of  Hebrews 1:10-12

191: Making Sense of Hebrews 1:10-12

September 23, 2021

Hebrews 1:10-12 is one of the most difficult passages for Biblical Unitarians, especially in light of its apparent designation of Jesus as the creator of the heavens and the earth. This episode offers a few suggestions on ways in which the text probably was intended to be understood by the author of Hebrews, focusing specifically on the precise wording of the citation from Psalm 102, the ongoing argument involving Jesus' greatness in comparison with the heavenly angels, Wisdom Christology, and various theological points that are to come up later in the Book of Hebrews.

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https://docs.google.com/document/d/1oLArUII7YSD9PQQqHf35tsjgHw8plZCMgx6Vx7gLJJg/edit?usp=sharing  

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190: Worshipping the Son in Hebrews 1:6

190: Worshipping the Son in Hebrews 1:6

September 16, 2021

Hebrews 1:6 presents some interesting interpretive issues for such a lesser-known passage. We discuss the meaning of the "world" where God led Jesus (and whether this was the first time or the second time this has occurred). We also explore the meaning of "firstborn" in the current argument between Jesus' status and that of the heavenly angels. We also look into how the heavenly realm is framed in terms of the inheritance associated with the age to come in the theology of Hebrews. Lastly, we attempt to find the original source of the quotation cited and understand the significance of angels offering worship to Jesus when they formerly worshipped God. 

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To view the notes from this episode please click the link below:

https://docs.google.com/document/d/1JAFRwS2XoL8zUo2kFpCBtEPh9ToY4ofqwAp3rb_zY4k/edit?usp=sharing 

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189: The Coronation of the Son in Hebrews 1:5

189: The Coronation of the Son in Hebrews 1:5

September 9, 2021

Hebrews 1:5 cites two passages from the Old Testament that both speak about God becoming the Father of the Son. Some have interpreted these passages in light of the argument in the Book of Hebrews to refer to Jesus' birth, where Jesus came into existence. Others have suggested that these quotations are referring to Jesus' baptism or even his resurrection/exaltation. This episode discusses the merits of each interpretation and suggests a solution that hopefully flows well with the argument made in Hebrews thus far.

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To view the notes from this episode please click the link below:

https://docs.google.com/document/d/1MvITm7_aK9CEE1uKWBj_FkUsM3Y_XrkhTENl3aHNSxk/edit?usp=sharing 

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188: Does the Book of Hebrews Depict Jesus as God’s Wisdom?

188: Does the Book of Hebrews Depict Jesus as God’s Wisdom?

September 2, 2021

In this episode, we explore whether the author of the Book of Hebrews teaches Wisdom Christology in the opening three verses. We give an honest listen to what other scholars are saying about this possibility, we interact with modern objections, we look at the evidence for allusions to personified wisdom, and discuss the possibility of typology as the probable relationship between wisdom and Jesus.

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To view the notes from this episode please click the link below:

https://docs.google.com/document/d/1ipnVvURfsP6Gg8Tpy9nHYi29up0eXW20JQGCSfpspAU/edit?usp=sharing 

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187: God and Jesus in the Book of Hebrews

187: God and Jesus in the Book of Hebrews

August 26, 2021

As we begin our study of the Book of Hebrews, we need to identify the main actors--God and Jesus. This episode looks at the person of God, his roles, and the ways in which he interacts with his creation. We also look at Jesus, the various ways he is described, and the difficult passages involving him. Lastly, we explore how God and Jesus interact and are distinguished throughout the Book of Hebrews. 

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To view the notes from this episode please click the link below:

https://docs.google.com/document/d/1jHPgyheHWPkq0iiw5Y0CSELidJ3_D_Qsh7S-eRtN69c/edit?usp=sharing 

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186: The Johannine Comma of 1 John 5:7-8

186: The Johannine Comma of 1 John 5:7-8

August 19, 2021

This episode explores the history, language, and persons involved in the transmission of the Johannine Comma, which is the textual corruption of 1 John 5:7-8 that mentions the oneness of the Father, the Word, and the Holy Spirit. The facts presented are organized into ten points.

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To view the notes from this episode please click the link below:

https://docs.google.com/document/d/1c0vNA1PVxu3jZHMgb2v5waBIeTmCV9ta9I_aCtukfQ4/edit?usp=sharing       

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185: Paul’s Use of OT Yahweh Texts for Jesus - (Part 4 of 4)

185: Paul’s Use of OT Yahweh Texts for Jesus - (Part 4 of 4)

August 12, 2021

As we wrap up our study of Pauline Yahweh texts for Jesus, we look at 1 Cor 10:26, 2 Cor 3:16-17, and the future "day of the Lord." David Capes, a leading scholar in the field of early high Christology, argues that these passages clearly indicate that Jesus is the referent to OT Yahweh texts. This episode looks closely at each of these passages, their OT counterparts, and suggests that Dr Capes is mistaken in these particular instances. I also offer five reflections from studying OT Yahweh texts for Jesus in light of Paul's scriptural habits.

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To view the notes from this episode please click the link below:

https://docs.google.com/document/d/10KZxi6d_BIhmR7bHh2ITgp2Gq59TG4dK5ETK9CSPsZM/edit?usp=sharing       

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184: Paul’s Use of OT Yahweh Texts for Jesus - (Part 3 of 4)

184: Paul’s Use of OT Yahweh Texts for Jesus - (Part 3 of 4)

August 5, 2021

As we continue to understand how Paul uses OT Yahweh passages for Jesus, we note that Paul cites Jer. 9:24 in both 1 Cor. 1:31 and 2 Cor. 10:17. Yet Paul's intent does not seem Christological in either instance. Furthermore, we explore Paul's quotation of Isa. 40:13 for both the Father and for Jesus (allegedly). While it is ultimately concluded that Paul does occasionally cite Yahweh passages for Jesus, the intent does not seem to be for readers to think of Jesus as Yahweh himself. 

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To view the notes from this episode please click the link below:

https://docs.google.com/document/d/1sdVW7BG0OPdTi4nhnutXq06nvKterQFroj15hge-qSw/edit?usp=sharing       

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183: Paul’s Use of OT Yahweh Texts for Jesus - Part 2

183: Paul’s Use of OT Yahweh Texts for Jesus - Part 2

July 29, 2021

This week's episode continues to explore the ways in which Paul cites OT Yahweh passages for Christ (and for God). We note that Paul is flexible with some of his quotations, demonstrating that the original referent in the OT citation can come to have a new referent in Paul's letters. We also explore a passage that David Capes, a leading scholar in the field of early high Christology, argues is a OT Yahweh passage used for Jesus. Lastly, we consider how Paul justifies citing Isaiah 45:23 for God in Romans and for Jesus in Philippians.

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https://docs.google.com/document/d/1bQcJFyJtwTy6HC8-48_0_kLbCqpBhuK5-Wl3lOxAJAE/edit?usp=sharing      

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182: Paul’s Use of OT Yahweh Texts for Jesus - Part 1

182: Paul’s Use of OT Yahweh Texts for Jesus - Part 1

July 22, 2021

In this episode, we begin exploring how the Apostle Paul used OT YHWH texts for both God and for Jesus. We note how Philippians 2 indicates that God has shared the divine name with the risen and exalted Jesus. We also see another passage referring to Jesus' lordship that indicates that he possesses the shared divine name, which Paul indicates with a YHWH citation from the Old Testament. Lastly, we look at the arguments and conclusions of a prominent scholar who sees Paul's use of YHWH texts for Jesus as evidence of early high Christology.

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To view the notes from this episode please click the link below:

https://docs.google.com/document/d/1pqYOUdOOAv8nIcmISQoVgAyyAPJ1zwHVZWwwLyRRk-o/edit?usp=sharing     

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181: OT Yahweh Texts for Jesus - An Introduction

181: OT Yahweh Texts for Jesus - An Introduction

July 15, 2021

The New Testament authors felt comfortable using Yahweh texts from the Hebrew Bible for the human Jesus. Some scholars have concluded that this data indicates that the NT authors identified Jesus as Yahweh, but this is problematic for many reasons. This episode will introduce the concept of OT Yahweh passages used in the NT for Jesus, looking at some examples as well as some helpful parallels in second temple Judaism. We conclude by using Mark 1:3--which cites Isaiah 40:3 for Jesus--as a test case suggesting that Jesus is the authorized and empowered agent of Yahweh.

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To view the notes from this episode please click the link below:

https://docs.google.com/document/d/1s7Mm0AKD9dTkqSGu3wrmmnCkpqIcvNyopGSl_io69eg/edit?usp=sharing    

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180: Making Sense of Titus 2:13

180: Making Sense of Titus 2:13

July 8, 2021

This episode closely studies Titus 2:13--a passage that is often used to suggest Jesus Christ is called "God." Titus 2:13 is a well-known ambiguous passage when it comes to the Greek, and it is certainly possible that Jesus is distinguished from the great God (i.e., the Father). This episode will look at both interpretations, examine the strengths of their arguments, and offer a nuanced reading that takes into account the overlooked reference to God's glory. 

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To view the notes from this episode please click the link below:

https://docs.google.com/document/d/1jKmwF_BsIfujsjV5FNX9UJR65w17mkJHwdKoZh688Zg/edit?usp=sharing   

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179: The Logos and Targum Neofiti

179: The Logos and Targum Neofiti

July 1, 2021

In this episode, we explore how the concept of God's "word" (Aramaic: "memra") is used in Targum Neofiti. After surveying the four ways in which this Aramaic Targum interprets the activity of the God of Israel in light of his word/memra, we turn to the prologue of John's Gospel (John 1:1-18) in order to see how the context created by Neofiti's use of word/memra helps us better understand God and his Logos. 

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To view the notes from this episode please click the link below:

https://docs.google.com/document/d/18CWkJ59IuYqtt0fu_HWIUVUEQsHVV7V9oojqPc8Ht_8/edit?usp=sharing  

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178: The Logos and Targum Onkelos

178: The Logos and Targum Onkelos

June 24, 2021

This episode explores how the "Word of God" (Aramaic: "memra") was used to explain the activity of the God of Israel in the Jewish Targum Onkelos. After organizing the various ways that Onkelos understands and uses the "memra" of God in the Torah, we look at John 1:1-18 to see if our reading of that passage is illuminated by the Jewish context created by Targum Onkelos. We conclude that the memra of God in Targum Onkelos is not a preexisting, conscious person alongside the God of Israel.

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To view the notes from this episode please click the link below:

https://docs.google.com/document/d/1P-Z6PmGg_Sp8uSUVMzw3Pt6SjWDaAC15jTG3ltHYK_g/edit?usp=sharing 

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177: Sacrifices and the Christian God (Part 2 of 2)

177: Sacrifices and the Christian God (Part 2 of 2)

June 17, 2021

In this episode, we continue exploring how early Christians understood Jesus functioning within sacrificial terminology that was reserved for God alone. The Book of Hebrews has a lot to say about Jesus as a high priest and as one who sacrificially offered himself to the one God. We also look at Paul's theology of the death of Jesus to see how the cross is understood in terms of a sin offering. Lastly, we explore the Lord's Supper--the Eucharist--to better understand how this meal was practiced in terms of remembering and even participating in Jesus' sacrifice to God.

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To view the notes from this episode please click the link below:

https://docs.google.com/document/d/15GoI-0DWbTZga7bf_Yzd_eHbUlYJViadtGArfI9h5A0/edit?usp=sharing     

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176: Sacrifices and the Christian God (Part 1)

176: Sacrifices and the Christian God (Part 1)

June 10, 2021

In this episode, we explore the function of sacrifices in the Ancient Near East, particularly in the ways they were differentiated from acts of worship and bowing down. Since the gods were understood to be the intended object of the offering of sacrifices and burnt offerings, we are able to examine early Christian "sacrificial" language to see whom they regarded as the true object. We note in our survey that God alone is the object of Christian "sacrifice" language, never Jesus Christ, while Jesus is sometimes the agent through whom sacrifices are made to the one God.

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To view the notes from this episode please click the link below:

https://docs.google.com/document/d/1CAoPPx0skTINJtqutW2bQ-lf54YnmdlYJUrsftJpZd0/edit?usp=sharing    

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